The Republic of Armenia is a sovereign, democratic, social state. State power is exercised in accordance with the Constitution and laws. The Constitution is the main law of the Republic of Armenia. All the fields of activities of the state are regulated first of all by constitutional laws. All other laws are based on the Constitution. In the Republic of Armenia, state power is divided into three branches: legislative, executive and judicial.
From 1991 to 2018 the Republic of Armenia was a semi-presidential state. In the case of the semi-presidential system, the President was the head of the State and the executive power, who was elected by the people through presidential elections. The Prime Minister was appointed by the President. Upon the recommendation of the Prime Minister, the President appointed members of the government. In regards to the parliament, it was formed through parliamentary elections.
Currently, Armenia is a parliamentary republic. Through parliamentary elections, the citizens elect deputies, and the deputies in the National Assembly elect the President of the Republic of Armenia and the Prime Minister of the Republic of Armenia.
THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA
The Constitution of the Republic of Armenia was adopted by a referendum on July 5, 1995. Since then, the text of the Constitution has been amended twice. The latest constitutional amendments were made in 2015.
The Preamble of the Constitution of the Republic of Armenia declares:
"The Armenian people — taking as a basis the fundamental principles of the Armenian Statehood and the nation-wide objectives enshrined in the Declaration on the Independence of Armenia, having fulfilled the sacred behest of its freedom-loving ancestors for the restoration of the sovereign state, committed to the strengthening and prosperity of the fatherland, with a view of ensuring the freedom of generations, general well-being and civic solidarity, assuring the allegiance to universal values — hereby adopt the Constitution of the Republic of Armenia.”
According to the Constitution, the President of the Republic is the head of the State and observes the compliance with the Constitution. The institution of the President of the Republic is not part of the executive, legislative and judicial branches of power; however, the President can support the state power through advice experience and international connections. The functions and powers of the President of the Republic are defined by the Constitution. The President of the Republic is elected by the National Assembly for a term of seven years. A person over the age of forty who has lived in Armenia for the last six years and is a citizen of the Republic of Armenia can be elected as the President of the Republic. The same person may be elected President of the Republic only once. The President of the Republic may not hold any other position, be engaged in entrepreneurial activities or perform other paid work. The President of the Republic may not hold membership in any political party. The President signs the laws passed by the National Assembly, concludes international treaties upon the recommendation of the Government, decides on the issues of granting and terminating citizenship of the Republic of Armenia, decides on the issue of granting pardon to convicts, grants awards and confers honorary titles, receives the letters of credence and the letters of recall of diplomatic representatives of foreign states and international organizations, appoints judges, appoints and dismisses the supreme command of the armed forces and other troops.
The Government is the supreme body of the executive power. The Government develops a programme and implements the domestic and foreign policy of the state on the basis of the above-mentioned programme. The Government of the Republic of Armenia consists of the Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Ministers, and Ministers.
The deputies of the National Assembly elect the Prime Minister, after which the President of the Republic appoints the candidate elected by the National Assembly. The government is formed after the appointment of the Prime Minister.
The Prime Minister proposes to the President of the Republic the candidates for Deputy Prime Ministers and Ministers, after which the President of the Republic appoints them.
The Prime Minister manages the activities of the Government and coordinates the work of the members of the Government.
Upon assignment of the Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Ministers coordinates individual fields of the activities of the Government. One of the Deputy Prime Ministers substitutes if the Prime Minister is absent.
Each minister independently manages the field of activities entrusted to the ministry.
The National Assembly implements legislative power. The National Assembly consists of deputies. The deputies are elected by the citizens of the Republic of Armenia who attained the age of eighteen. Being elected by the citizens, the National Assembly is a representative body, i.e. it represents the interests of its voters in the National Assembly. The National Assembly exercises management over executive power. The Prime Minister and the ministers often go to the National Assembly, where they report on the work done or to be done by the government, after which they answer the questions of the deputies. The members of the government in the National Assembly also submit a report on the expenses of the state budget (the state budget is the necessary means to ensure the activities of state bodies and to carry out the functions of the state).
The judiciary is an independent and autonomous system. The main task of the judiciary is to enforce justice by law.
There is a three-tier judicial system in the Republic of Armenia: the Courts of First Instance of General Jurisdiction of the Republic of Armenia, the Court of Appeal, and the Court of Cassation.
The judiciary mainly resolves all disputes that arise between different people, organizations and state agencies.
Decisions and judgments of the Court of First Instance may be appealed to the relevant Court of Appeal.
The decisions of the Court of Appeal can be appealed to the Court of Cassation, which is the highest court in Armenia.
The Constitutional Court is the highest legal body of the Republic of Armenia.